Epsom Normal Primary School

WRITING PROGRESSIONS:

In the First Year of School:

In their first year of school, students create many texts for a range of purposes across the curriculum. They plan for writing, using talk and pictures, and attempt to record their ideas and experiences in print.

At first, there is a high level of scaffolding as teachers help students to:

  • hold an idea in their head long enough to write it down
  • say, hear, and record the predominant sounds in the words they want to write
  • write from left to right and leave spaces between words
  • form letters accurately

Gradually, the support alters as teachers help students to build and strengthen their processing systems and to create longer, more complex texts. Students learn to:

  • experiment with capturing words from their oral vocabulary
  • hear and say the initial and final sounds and some dominant medial sounds in the words they want to write
  • recognise and identify common sounds in different words
  • use their developing visual memory to consistently encode (spell) some known words correctly
  • make close attempts to encode words by using their developing knowledge of phoneme–grapheme relationships
  • make close attempts to encode words by noticing visual similarities to known words
  • attempt to use capital letters and full stops as they develop their understanding of sentences
  • reread what they write as they are writing and read (or retell) their writing to themselves and others

 

After One Year of School:

After one year at school, students begin to use specific processes to create texts, and these processes may vary depending on the particular purpose for writing. The students are able to read and talk about their completed texts.

When students at this level create texts, they:

  • plan for writing, using talk, text, or drawing
  • convey simple ideas, responses, opinions, or questions
  • reread what they have written, as they write, to maintain meaning
  • respond to feedback by making changes such as adding or deleting details or changing punctuation or spelling.

They draw on knowledge and skills that include:

  • using vocabulary drawn from their own oral language or encountered in their reading or other classroom activities
  • using their developing phonemic awareness to aurally segment words into syllables (e.g., win-dow, ham-bur-ger) and one-syllable words into individual phonemes (e.g., b/a/n/d, sh/i/p)
  • using their developing visual memory to accurately write some key personal words and some high frequency words
  • encoding (spelling) unfamiliar words by using their developing knowledge of phoneme– grapheme relationships
  • using classroom resources such as wallcharts and picture dictionaries
  • forming all upper-case and lower-case letters and numerals correctly
  • understanding simple text types (e.g., personal recounts, character descriptions) and writing to the purpose of a text type
  • composing simple sentences and some compound sentences using conjunctions such as ‘and’, or ‘but’
  • using capital letters and full stops to begin and end sentences

 

After Two Years of School:

In their second year at school, students create texts for instructional writing purposes as well as to support their other learning across the curriculum. They write in order to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information that relate to a curriculum topic. Students understand their purpose for writing. They generate their ideas in many ways, including brainstorming with peers, with the teacher, and independently.

When students at this level create texts, they:

  • use simple planning strategies to organise their ideas and then apply their planning as they turn ideas into connected sentences
  • develop content that is related to the topic, with some (mostly relevant) detail
  • recraft their text (often in response to feedback) and edit it for clarity and accuracy of meaning
  • proofread their text to check punctuation and spelling

They draw on knowledge and skills that include:

  • using their personal content vocabulary of written words as well as words and phrases that are part of their expanding oral vocabulary
  • using their developing phonemic awareness to form new words aurally by changing or taking out some of the sounds in a word or by adding new sounds to words
  • using their visual memory to spell personal vocabulary as well as high-frequency words, which could include most of the words in essential lists 1 and 2 as well as some of the high frequency words in essential lists 3 and 4
  • encoding (spelling) unfamiliar words using their knowledge of diverse phoneme–grapheme relationships to write some of the sounds of English in different ways (e.g., photo, laugh, Friday) – applying strategies such as sounding out words, making analogies to words that sound or look the same, and using known chunks and rimes – using their increasing knowledge of morphology to correctly spell word endings and other morphemes (e.g., greatest, florist) – applying their knowledge of simple spelling rules (e.g., using -es for plural nouns ending in s, such as buses)
  • attempting to use a variety of precise verbs, adjectives and nouns
  • forming all lower-case and upper-case letters correctly with increasing speed and automaticity
  • using appropriate text structures for text types such as recounts, narratives, reports, and exposition writing
  • composing mainly simple and compound sentences, with some variation in sentence beginnings
  • using simple conjunctions correctly, with subject–verb agreement and noun–pronoun agreement
  • using full stops, question marks, or exclamation marks to end sentences and using capital letters correctly to begin sentences (and for proper nouns)

 

After Three Years of School:

After three years at school, students independently create texts using a process that will help them achieve their specific purpose for writing. Where appropriate, their texts are clearly directed to a particular audience through appropriate choice of content, language, and text form. However, they may often assume that their audience is familiar with the context.

When students at this level create texts, they:

  • use planning strategies to organise ideas for writing (e.g., by using lists and mind maps that distinguish main ideas from details) and to generate language for writing
  • create content, mostly relevant, that conveys several experiences, items of information, and/ or ideas relating to the topic or task and that sometimes includes details and/or comment
  • recraft and edit their writing for sense and impact and give their peers feedback on their writing
  • proofread their writing to check the spelling, grammar, and punctuation, drawing on their own developing knowledge about words and sentence construction and using classroom resources such as junior dictionaries
  • publish, where appropriate, in a variety of media, depending on their purpose and audience

They draw on knowledge and skills that include:

  • using increasingly specific words and phrases (e.g., adjectives and more precise nouns and verbs) that are appropriate to the content of the text
  • using their visual memory to spell personal vocabulary and high-frequency words (e.g., many words from essential lists 1–4 and some from list 5 and list 6)
  • encoding (spelling) unfamiliar words by: – using their knowledge of phoneme–grapheme relationships, along with their developing awareness of spelling conventions, to select correct spelling patterns for sounds in words, applying their growing knowledge of useful spelling rules (e.g., simple plural suffixes such as those in baby/babies and half/halves) and their growing knowledge of morphology (e.g., adding a d to hear to make heard) – applying their expanding knowledge of graphemes (e.g., of graphemes such as or, awe, oar, and oor, which record similar sounds) to write words correctly
  • using simple written language features (such as similes, onomatopoeia, personification, and alliteration) and visual language features (such as labelled diagrams) to support meaning
  • writing all upper-case and lower-case letters correctly, legibly, and fluently
  • using a basic text structure to organise their text effectively for its purpose (e.g., a narrative with an orientation, rising action, problem development and a resolution)
  • using both simple and compound sentences that vary in their beginnings and lengths and that are usually grammatically correct
  • attempting to write complex sentences
  • constructing sentences in which the tense is mostly consistent
  • using capital letters, full stops, question marks, and exclamation marks correctly

 

By the end of Year Four:

By the end of Year 4, students independently create a variety of texts in a range of print and electronic media. They understand their purposes for writing and identify suitable writing processes to meet the purposes. Where appropriate, their writing demonstrates an awareness of their audience through appropriate choice of content, language, and text form.

When students at this level create texts, they:

  • select and use tools (e.g., graphic organisers) and strategies (e.g., using headings) to plan and organise ideas and information to meet their purposes for writing
  • create content that is mostly relevant to the writing task, covers a range of ideas, experiences, or items of information, and often includes detail and/or comment that supports the main points
  • reread their writing at various stages to check for meaning and fitness for purpose
  • recraft and edit their writing for clarity, impact, and fitness for purpose, often in response to feedback
  • proofread for accuracy of spelling, grammar, and punctuation
  • make choices, when appropriate, for publishing in a variety of media, including digital and visual media.

They draw on knowledge and skills that include:

  • using language and a simple text structure that are appropriate for the purpose, e.g., an orientation, rising action, problem development and resolution for a narrative
  • using vocabulary (in particular, nouns, verbs, adjectives, and adverbs) that clearly conveys ideas, experiences, or information
  • encoding (spelling) using their knowledge of diverse phoneme–grapheme relationships (e.g., ship, chef, ocean, station, special), of the meaning and spelling of morphemes (e.g., root words and affixes), and of common, reliable spelling rules and conventions – using their visual memory to help them spell personal vocabulary and high-frequency words correctly (the high-frequency words include most words from essential lists 1–4 and many from essential lists 5–7)
  • expanding their writing vocabulary by using strategies such as applying their knowledge of the meaning of most common prefixes (e.g., un-, sub-, pre-, non-) and most common suffixes (e.g., -ful, -ly, -tion, -able/-ible, and -ment) – using reference sources (e.g., dictionaries and thesauruses) to check the meanings of words and to find new words
  • using written language features (such as similes, metaphors, onomatopoeia, personification, and alliteration and visual language features (such as illustrations and diagrams) to support meaning
  • using mainly simple and compound sentences, along with some complex sentences, that vary in their beginnings, structures, and lengths and are mostly grammatically correct
  • correctly using subject–verb agreement, tense agreement, and pronouns and prepositions
  • using capital letters, full stops, question marks, and exclamation marks correctly and using speech marks, commas for lists, and apostrophes for contractions correctly most of the time

 

By the end of Year 6:

The texts and tasks are similar for students in Year 5 and Year 6. They use their writing to think about, record, and communicate experiences, ideas, and information to meet specific learning purposes across the curriculum. During these two years, students increase their level of control and independence in selecting processes and strategies to write texts for a range of purposes that include recounting, describing, narrating, reporting, arguing, and explaining. By the end of Year 6, students are required to write more complex texts than students in Year 5. They independently create texts that are appropriate for their purposes and audiences, choosing effective content, language, and text structures.

When students at this level create texts, they:

  • understand their purposes for writing and identify writing processes that are appropriate for those purposes that need to be planned
  • generate content that is usually relevant to the task, supporting or elaborating their main ideas with detail that has been selected with some care
  • independently recraft and edit their writing to clarify its meaning and add impact, often in response to feedback
  • proofread to check the spelling, grammar, and punctuation, using appropriate computer based or print tools

They draw on knowledge and skills that include:

  • using an overall text structure that is appropriate for their purpose, e.g., an orientation, action rising, problem development, and resolution (for a narrative) and an introduction, a series of main points, and a logical conclusion (for a report)
  • exercising discernment by selecting vocabulary that is appropriate to the topic, register, and purpose (e.g., academic and subject-specific vocabulary appropriate for specific learning areas or precise and descriptive words to create imagery)
  • using written language features (such as emotive vocabulary) and visual language features (such as headings, charts, or maps) to extend or clarify meaning and to engage their audience
  • using their knowledge of how words work (e.g., knowledge of diverse phoneme–grapheme relationships, of common, reliable spelling rules and conventions, and of the meanings and spellings of morphemes), along with their knowledge of word derivations, to fluently and correctly encode most unfamiliar words, including words of many syllables
  • correctly spelling all high-frequency words used in their writing
  • organising related ideas into paragraphs and beginning to use cohesive devices to link paragraphs
  • using simple and compound sentences that are grammatically correct and have a variety of structures, beginnings, and lengths, and using some complex sentences that are mostly grammatically correct
  • using basic punctuation that is mostly correct (e.g., when punctuating dialogue)
  • attempting complex punctuation e.g., using apostrophes for possession, commas for clauses, semicolons, ellipses etc.